Geography and climate of Egypt can be confusing, while It's cold and wet in Alexandria, it can be extremely hot in Aswan but in general Egypt weather dry cold in the winter and hot at the summer days with a little of dusty wind on the fall, you'll find the country has land borders Libya to the west ,Sudan to the south, Palestine to the north east ,northern border by the white sea coast and the red sea coast by the eastern borders. The lands of the Arab Republic of Egypt are between latitudes 22 ° and 36 ° 31 ° North, which means that the orbit of the cancer passes through the southern part of the country passing in the southern part of Aswan city, and between latitudes 24 ° and 37 ° east of Greenwich.
Egypt is located in the southern east of Africa continent as the peninsula of Sinai geographically located in Asia continent, The area of the Arab Republic of Egypt is about 1,002,000 square kilometers and the inhabited area is 78,990 km2 of the total area, Egypt is divided to 27 governorates, most of the population concentrated in the Nile valley where the City of Cairo contains more than quarter of the population followed by Alexandria city.
Egypt has many different Water resources including the Red Sea and Mediterranean coasts, 10 natural lakes and Nasser Industrial Park, as well as the main freshwater resource of the Nile River which extended along Egypt and ends in Rasheed and Damietta, The available water resources are around 68 billion cubic meters which used in agriculture , industry and in drinking.
Mountains and deserts
Egypt has several limestone mountains located in Cairo, the most famous mountain chain are by the red sea coast It consists of ancient and mutant arctic rocks, the highest mountain of this chain is Al (Shayeb) mountain 1281meter and( Hamatta) mountain 1978 meters , also the mountain chains of saint Catharine located in the south of Sinai which height 8,853 feet above sea level, enjoy the beauty of these red mountains during your visit ,climb the mountain of (mousa) which is the highest mountain of saint Catharine collection , by the Libyan borders there is ( Ouainatt) mountain and a group of granite mountains which has ancient primitive paints and symbols written on its mountain rocks. There's threes deserts area in Egypt represented in the eastern desert, the western desert which contains the minerals lakes and the desert of Sinai peninsula.
Islands of Egypt
Egypt has almost 1048 islands all over the Nile or beside the sea coasts, most of them Uninhabited, some of the islands are in Aswan such as the touristic island of Philae that contains Philae temple and pharaohs monuments ,also there's elephantine island which was named by the ancient Greek and was a trade center , last but not least the plants island that has unique and very rare plants and trees dates back for many years, also there an island known as Nilson beside Alexandria coast famous for its diving and fishing activities ,in the capital of Cairo there al zamalek Island famous for its modern designed coffee and restaurants.
Egypt climate usually affected by many factors such as location and pressure, All this helped divide Egypt into several distinct climatic regions. Egypt is located in the dry tropical region, except for the northern parts that enter the temperate zone, which enjoys a climate similar to that of the Mediterranean climate which is characterized by heat and drought in the summer months and moderation in the winter with little rain falling on the coast.
According to the astronomical location of the country, in the northern parts contain high pressure air reduces the chances of rainfall and also prevailed with dry winds get heated as heading to the south (the equator), during the winter the north of Egypt is prevailed by the south-east and north-west winds, especially the coast North West and Delta, In the spring, the western wind begins to decline as the northern wind generally advances. The summer has a different pattern of surface winds The northern dry winds dominate all directions. The autumn season is a transitional period between the summer and winter conditions in Egypt which The northern winds start to decline and some wind distribution may occur.
Rainfall in Egypt is generally decreased but concentrated along the northern coast. The winter season in Egypt starts from December to March while The rains are accompanied by hot and cold wind disturbances , The decline in the amount of rain falling southward in the interior areas of Aswan ,In some years heavy rain falls on the heights of South Sinai and the Red Sea highlands and flows into dry valleys in form of torrential floods.
The lowest temperature in Egypt is in the three winter months of December, January and February in the heights of the Sinai Peninsula, where the average reaches to 5 °C, South of Egypt is also warmer due to latitude effect, Winter temperatures in Cairo are down to 12 ° C, while rising to 15 ° C in Alexandria and the north coast ,18 ° C in the south where Luxor and Aswan . In the summer months of June, July and August, the temperature rises to its maximum range between 28 ° C and 29 ° C in the north, and from 40 ° C to 42 ° C in the South. For Spring and Autumn seasons, they are moderate transitional seasons. The fall of the country may come with some early rains, so autumn is the best and most appropriate seasons in Egypt in terms of human comfort, especially in November ,Maximum temperatures in the fall range from 27 ° C in the north to 35 ° in the south.